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USDA hemp Memo

Memo ya USDA HEMP - Zolemba Zonse

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Pansipa pali USDA Hemp Memo yathunthu:

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UnitedStates Dipatimenti ya Agriculture

Ofesi ya the Uphungu Wonse

Washington D.C.

2025 0-1400

GENERALCOUNSEL

Mwina 28, 2019

CHIKUMBUTSO

NKHANI:

CHIYEMBEKEZO CHOKOPA KWA ATSOPANO A HEMP Yatsopano

Pa Disembala 20, 2018, Purezidenti Trnmp.s anakhazikitsidwa mchilamulo cha Agriculture Improvement Act cha 2018, Pub. L. 115-334 (Bwalo la Zaulimi la 2018). Bizinesi ya Famu ya 2018 idaloleza kupangidwa kwa hemp pazifukwa zonse mkati mwa zigawo zomwe zalembedwa.

Ofesi ya General Counsel (OGC) yapereka lingaliro lamalamulo logwirizana ndi mayankho okhudzana ndi sev. Zina mwa zomwe zikukhudzana ndi zaulimi za mchaka cha 2018, zikuphatikiza: gawo lokhala m'manja mwa oyendetsa ndege zaulimi mu 2014 (Umthetho waulimi wa 2014) (Gawo 7605); Kusintha kwa Agricultural Marketing Act wa 1946 kuti dziko la America ndi India liziwongolera kupanga kwa hemp kapena kutsata dongosolo la Department of Agriculture (USDA) loyang'anira ntchito yopanga hemp (Gawo 10113); makonzedwe othandiza kuti mayendedwe aulere kwaulere (Gawo 10114); ndi kuchotsedwa kwa hemp ku Controlled Sub zinthu Act (Gawo 12619).

Malingaliro ofunikira a malingaliro a malamulo a OGC ndi awa:

  1. Ponena ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa lamulo lapaulimi la 2018 pa Disembala 20, 2018, hemp yachotsedwa mundandanda ya I ya Controlled Sub zinthu Act ndipo salinso chinthu cholamulidwa.
  2. USDA itasindikiza malamulo oyendetsera ntchito yatsopano yopanga hemp ya 2018 Fa1m Bill yopezeka mu Agricultural Marketing Act ya 1946, mayiko a America ndi India sangathe kuletsa kusintha kwa pakati kapena kutumiza kwa hemp mwalamulo pansi pa pulani ya State kapena Tribal kapena pansi pa layisensi. yoperekedwa pansi pa USDA
  3. Mayiko ndi amitundu aku India sangatiletsenso kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa hemp zovomerezeka movomerezeka ndi Famu ya 2014
  4. Munthu wokhala ndi Boma kapena Federal felony yokhudzana ndi chinthu cholamulidwa amaloledwa kuletsa zaka 10 kuletsa kupanga hemp pansi pa Agricultural Marketing Act of An kusiyira ntchito kwa munthu yemwe anali kukula mwalamulo mchilamulo chaulimi cha 2014 kale Disembala 20, 2018, ndi omwe chitsimikizo chake chidachitika tsiku lomweli lisanachitike.

MEMORANDUM Meyi 28, 2019

Tsamba2

Ndi kukhazikitsidwa kwa 2018 Farm Bill, hemp ikhoza kukhala yokhayo (I) yokhala ndi chilolezo chovomerezeka cha USDA, (2) pansi pa kayendetsedwe ka StateA-State State kapena Tribal, kapena (3) pansi paulamuliro woyendetsa ndege wa mafakitale wa 2014 Farm Bill hemp. . Ulamuliro woyendetsa ndegewo udzatha chaka chimodzi kuchokera ku USDA kukhazikitsa dongosolo lopereka ziphaso za USDA motsatira lamulo la 2018 Farm Bill.

Ndikofunikira kuti anthu azindikire kuti lamulo la famu ya chaka cha 2018 limasunga ulamulilo waku America ndi mafuko aku India kukhazikitsa ndi kukhazikitsa malamulo oyang'anira Kupanga a hemp omwe amakhala olimba kuposa malamulo a Federal. Chifukwa chake, ngakhale kuti boma kapena fuko la India silingaletse kutumizidwa kwa hemp kudzera mu Boma kapena Tribal teRRitory, ikhoza kupitiliza kukhazikitsa malamulo a Boma kapena a Tribal oletsa kukula kwa hemp mu Boma kapena Tribal teRRitory.

Ndikofunikanso kutsindika kuti lamulo la famu ya chaka cha 2018 silikhudza kapena kusintha ulamuliro wa Secretary of Health and Human Services kapena Commissioner of Chakudya ndi Mankhwala kuti athe kuwongolera hemp pansi pa malamulo a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

USDA ikuyembekeza kupereka malamulo oyendetsera olamulira atsopano opanga hemp mu 2019.

Dipatimenti ya Ulimi ya United States

Ofesi ya General Uphungu

Washington D.C.

20250-1400

STEPHEN ER VADEN

MALANGIZO OGULITSA

Mwina 28, 2019

MEMORANDUM YA SONNY PERDUE SECRETARY OF AGRICULTURE

NKHANI:

KULEMEKEZA KWAULERE KWA ZINSINSI ZA CERTAIN ZA MALO OTSILIZA AGRICULTURE IMBONSE YA 2018 KUTUMIKIRA KWA HEMP

Chikalatachi chikupereka lingaliro langa mwalamulo pa zopereka za 1 Impactmentment Act ya 2018. (“2018 Farm Bill”), Pu_b. L No. 115-334, yokhudzana ndi hemp.

Monga tafotokozera pansipa, Chikumbutso ichi chikutsiriza follQwing:

  1. Monga za kukhazikitsidwa kwa lamulo la 2018 Fam1 Bill pa Disembala 20, 2018, hemp yachotsedwa mu ndandanda I ya Controlled Sub zinthu Act ("CSA") ndipo salinso Hemp yoyendetsedwa ikufotokozedwa pansi pa Lipoti la 1 Fa2018m kuphatikiza cannabis iliyonse chomera, kapena zotumphukira zake, zomwe sizikhala ndi 1 peresenti ya delta-0.3 tetrahydrocannabinol (“THC”) yolemera kulemera.
  2. Depaitment of Agriculture ("USDA" kapena "Depa1tment") ikufalitsa malamulo oyendetsera ntchito yopanga hemp ya 2018 Farm Bill yomwe ili mu gawo lachigawo G la Agricultural Marketing Act la 1946 ("AMA; '), mayiko ndi mayiko a India sangatero leletsa kuyendetsa pakati kapena kutumiza kwa hemp zopangidwa mwalamulo pansi pa pulani ya State kapena Tribal kapena pansi pa layisensi yoperekedwa ndi Dipatimenti
  3. Mayiko ndi India sangathe kuletsa kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa hemp movomerezeka mwalamulo laolimo la2014 (“Famu Yaulimi ya 2014”).
  4. A Munthu wokhala ndi boma kapena Federal felony yokhudzana ndi chinthu cholamulidwa amaloledwa kuletsa zaka 10 kuletsa kupanga hemp mololedwa G mwa AMA. Kupatula kumakhudzana ndi munthu yemwe anali wovomerezeka mwalamulo pachilolezo cha 2014 Frum Bill asanafike pa Disembala 20, 2018, komanso wotsimikiza mtima wake adakhudzidwanso tsikulo.

Chikumbukirochi chikugogomezeranso mbali ziwiri zofunika kwambiri za lamulo la Famu ya Zapulogalamu ya 2018 yokhudza hemp. Choyamba, Boma la Zaulimi la 2018 limasunga ulamulilo wa States ndi mafuko aku India kuti akhazikitse ndikukhazikitsa malamulo omwe amayang'anira Kupanga (koma osati zoyendera kapena zogulitsa) za hemp zomwe ndizolimba kuposa malamulo a Federal. Mwachitsanzo, lamulo la Boma loletsa kukula kapena kulima kwa hemp likhoza kupitilizabe kukhazikitsidwa ndi Boma. Chachiwiri, Bill Farm ya 2018 sikukhudza kapena kusintha ulamuliro wa Secretary of Health and Human Services kapena Commissioner of Chakudya ndi Mankhwala osokoneza bongo pansi pa malamulo a US Food and Drug Administration.

  1. MALANGIZO

Th62018 Famu Yaulimi, Pub. L. No. 115-334, yomwe idakhazikitsidwa pa Disembala 20, 2018, imaphatikizapo zinthu zingapo zokhudzana ndi hemp.1 Malingaliro amilandu awa amayang'ana magawo 7605, 10113, 10114, ndi 12619, omwe afotokozedwa mwachidule.

  • Gawo 7605 Kusintha gawo 7606 la 2014 Farm Bill (7 USC § 5940), yomwe imavomereza mabungwe a maphunziro apamwamba kapena boma laulimi kuti alime kapena kulima hemp ya mafakitale pazinthu zina-zomwe, ngati hemp yakula kapena yalimidwa kuti ikufufuze mu Dziko lomwe limalola kupanga hemp. Mwa zina, gawo 7605 likuthandizira a Farm Farm wa 2014 Farm 7606 kuti a Secretary of Agriculture ("Secretary") awerenge zofufuza izi za hemp ndikupereka lipoti ku Congress. Gawo 11 likunenanso chaka cha 7605 Frum Bill§ 2014, chaka chimodzi chitadutsa pomwe Mlembi adzakhazikitsa dongosolo pansi pa gawo 7606C la 2
  • Gawo 10113 aJ11 amalimbikitsa AMA powonjezera gawo latsopanoli G (magawo 297A kudzera 297E) (7 USC §§ 16390 -1639s) yokhudzana ndi kupanga kwa hemp. Pansi pa ulamuliro watsopanowu, dziko kapena fuko la India lomwe likufuna kukhala ndiulamuliridwe wakupanga wa hemp m'bomalo kapena gawo la mtunduwo wa India ungapereke, kuti avomereze Secretary, malingaliro okhudzana ndi kuwunikira ndi kukhazikitsa kupanga hemp .. Onani AMA § 297B. A States kapena mafuko aku India omwe alibe - anavomera mapulani, Mlembi amatsogozedwa kuti akhazikitse dongosolo la Dipatimenti yokhudza kuwunika ndikuwongolera kapangidwe ka hemp m'malo amenewo. Onani AMA§ 297C. Pulogalamu ya

1 The Fann Bill ya 2014 imatanthauzira “Wogulitsa makampani” monga "chomera Cannabis malovu L. ndi gawo lililonse la mbewuyo, kaya ikukula kapena ayi, ndi delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol ndende yotsala yoposa 0.3 peresenti pouma." 7 USC § 5940 (a) (2). Bungwe la Fann la 2018 lidawonjezeranso lingaliro latsopano, losiyana pang'ono wa "hemp" mu gawo 297A la AMA, lotetezedwa ngati "chomera Cannabis malovu L. ndi mbewu iliyonse ya mbewu, kuphatikiza mbewu zake ndi zotuluka zonse, zochotsa zina, ma cannabinoids, ma isomers, acids, mchere, ndi mchere wa isomers, kaya ukukula kapena ayi. , wokhala ndi zotupa za 9 trahydrocrumabinol zosaposa 0.3 peresenti pamlingo wa dJy. ” 7 USC

  • 16390 (1). Matanthauzidwe onsewa amafuna kuti a TC azikhala osaposa 0.3 peresenti kuti chomera cha Cannabis sativa L. chiziwalika ngati hemp motsutsana ndi chamba. Pazolinga zamalamulo awa, ndimagwiritsa ntchito mawu “Hemp” ndi “Wogulitsa makampani” mosinthika.

2 Lipoti la Msonkhano lomwe liphatikizidwe ndi Pulogalamu ya 2018 ya Fann likulongosola za kutha kwa ntchito motere: "Izi zidasinthanso pulogalamu yofufuza za hemp chaka chimodzi pambuyo pomwe Secretary atasindikiza lamulo lomaliza lolola kupanga bwino kwa hemp monga momwe chaperekedwa gawo 297C of [AMA]. " HR REP. No. 115-1072, pa 699 (2018). ·

Secretary amafunikanso kukhazikitsa malamulo ndi malangizo oyendetsera subtitle

  1. Onani AMA § 297D. Ulamuliro watsopano umaperekanso tanthauzo (onani AMA § 297A) ndi chilolezo chovomerezeka (onani AMA § 297E).
  • Gawo 10114 (7 UC § 16390 notshi) ndi makonzedwe obwera onena kuti palibe mutu wa X wa Bill Farm wa 2018 waletsa malonda azaka za hemp kapena hemp. Gawo 10114 limaperekanso kuti mafuko a America ndi India sangaletse kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa zinthu za hemp kapena hemp zopangidwa molingana ndi subtitle G kudzera State kapena teititory a fuko la India.
  • Gawo 12619 ikusintha CSA kupatula hemp ku tanthauzo la CSA za chamba 1 619 chikutsirizansoCSAtoexclude THC mu hemp kuchokera ku Ndondomeko I.3 \ ::

Popereka lamulo lowonjezera laulimi la 2018, Congress idavomereza kupanga ma hemp pazolinga zonse mkati mwa zigawozo koma osungidwa ku United States ndi mafuko aku India kuti athe kukhazikitsa ndi kukhazikitsa malamulo okhwima omwe amayang'anira kupanga hemp.

  1. ANALYSIS
  1. Monga za Kukwaniritsidwa kwa Bungwe la Fa2018m la 1 pa Disembala 20120181 Hemp Wachotsedwa pa Ndandanda I cha Dongosolo Loyendetsa Zinthu ndipo Sulinso Wowongolera.

CSA § 102 (6) imatanthauzira. "Cholamulidwa" kutanthauza "mankhwala osokoneza bongo kapena chinthu chilichonse, kapena okhazikika patsogolo, ophatikizidwa ndi ndandanda I, II, IIl, .JV, kapena V ya gawo B laudindo. . . . ” 21 USC § 802 (6). Marijuana4 ndi chinthu chowongoleredwa chomwe chidalembedwa mu ndandanda yoyamba ya CSA. Onani CSA § 202 (c) (10), ndandanda I (21 USC § 812 (c), Ndondomeko I (c) (l0)); 21 CFR § 1308.ll (d) (23).

Bili la Famu ya 2018 lidasintha CSA m'njira ziwiri.

  • Choyamba, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (a) adasintha tanthauzo la CSA la chamba kuti asatengere h mp. Asanakhazikitsidwe kwa Lipoti la Fam2018 la 1, CSA§ 102 (16) (21 USC 802 (16)) adalongosola chamba motere:
  • Mawu akuti 'marihuana' amatanthauza mbali zonse za chomera Cannabis sativa L., kaya akukula kapena ayi; mbewu zake; utoto wotengedwa kuchokera ku mtundu uliwonse wa chomera choterocho; ndipo chilichonse, kupanga, mchere, zochokera, zosakaniza, kapena kukonza chomera, mbewu zake kapena chitsime chotere sichimakhala ndi mapesi okhwima a mbewu, ulusi wopangidwa kuchokera ku mapesi, mafuta kapena keke wopangira mbewu za mbewu zotere , zida zina zilizonse, kupanga, mchere, zochokera, zosakaniza, kapena kukonza ma s chokhwima (kupatula utali womwe wachotsedwa pamenepo), ulusi, mafuta, kapena keke,

3 Zambiri zakutsogolo · pa hemp kupanga zisanachitike kukhazikitsidwa kwa 2018 Fann Bi.II, onani DRM Research Service, "Hemp as a Commodity Commodity" (RL32725) (yasinthidwa Julayi 9, 2018), zipilamatha at https: // crkusokosera.congress.gov/product/pdf/RL/RL32725.

4 Maganizo awa amagwiritsa ntchito matchulidwe apadera a "chamba" pokhapokha ngati atchule mawu a CSA, omwe amagwiritsa ntchito matchulidwe akuti "chamba".

kapena mbewu yoyesedwa ya mbewu yotere yomwe singathe kumera.

Monga momwe kukapangidwira ndi Bill Farm wa 2018, tanthauzo la CSA pankhani ya chamba pano:

  • Mutu wa subparagraph (B); mawu oti 'marihuana' amatanthauza mbali zonse za chomera Cannabis sativa , kaya akukula kapena ayi; mbewu zake; utoto wotengedwa ku chilichonse chomera; ndipo chilichonse, kupanga, mchere, zochokera, zosakaniza, kapena kukonza mbewu, Mbewu zake kapena utomoni.
  • Mawu akuti 'marihuana' sakuphatikizaponso
  • hemp, monga tafotokozera mu gawo 297A la Agricultural Marketing Act la 1946; kapena

8.

  • mmera okhwima ngati chomera chimenecho, ulusi wopangidwa kuchokera ku mapesi oterowo; mafuta kapena keke lopangidwa kuchokera

Mbeu za mbewu zotere, zina zilizonse, zimapanga, mchere, zotengera, zosakaniza wa mapesi okhwima (kupatula utomoni wa tsambalo), ulusi, mafuta, kapena keke, kapena mbewu chosawilitsidwa cha chomera chomwe sichitha kumera.

  • Lachiwiri, 2018 Farm Bill§ 12619 (b) adasinthitsa CSA kuti isaphatikizire THC mu hemp kuchokera ku liwu loti "tetrahydrocannabinols" mu ndandanda Monga zidasinthidwa ndi Lipulazi la 2018, CSA
  • 202 (c) (l 7), ndandanda ya I (21 USC § 812 (c) (l 7), ndandanda I) tsopano yawerenga:

Tetrahydrocannabinols, kupatula tetrahydrocannabinols in hemp (monga tafotokozera Pansi pa gawo

297A ya Agricultural Marketing Act ya 1946).

Ndikukonza tanthauzo la chamba kuti sichikupatula hemp monga momwe AMA § 297A imakhalira, Congress yachotsa hemp pa ndandanda I ndikuchichotsa kwathunthu ku CSA. Mwanjira ina, hemp sakhalanso chinthu cholamulidwa. Komanso, pokonza ndandanda I kupatula THC mu hemp, Congress imachotsanso THC mu hemp ku CSA.

Ndikofunikira kudziwa kuti kuwongolera kumene kwa hemp (ndi THC mu hemp) ndikudzipha. Ngakhale malamulo oyendetsera CSA akuyenera kusinthidwa kuti awonetse kusintha kwa maofesi a zaulimi ku 2018 ku CSA, ngakhale kusindikiza kwa malamulo omwe asinthidwa kapena kuchitapo kanthu sikofunikira kuchita izi.

Ndimalankhula pano ziwiri zotsutsana ndikuganiza kuti kudziwitsidwa kwa hemp ndikudzipha. Chotsutsa choyamba ndikuti, chifukwa malamulo sanasindikizidwe pansi pa CSA

  • 201, kusintha kwamalamulo kuti akonzekere hemp sikugwira ntchito. Izi sizoyenera.

Njira zomwe zimagwiritsidwira ntchito pokonzanso ndandanda ya CSA zimadukiza. Pansi pa CSA

  • 201 (a), Woyimira Woyimira Pamilandu ”akhoza mwaulamuliro” kuwonjezera, kuchotsa, kapena kusuntha pakati pa masanjidwewo, mankhwala aliwonse kapena zinthu zina pa zomwe apeza. 21 USC
  • 81l (a). Komabe, magawoli amathanso kusinthidwa mwachindunji ndi Congress kudzera pakusintha kwa lamulo; ndipo Congress idachita kangapo.5

'Onani, mwach. Pub. L. I 12-144, § 1152 (kukonza ndandanda I kuti ndiziwonjezera othandizira cannabimimetic); Pub. L. 101-647,

  • 1902 (a) (kukonza ndandanda ya Ill kuti ikwaniritse anabolic steroids).

Chotsutsa chachiwiri ndichakuti, chifukwa kusintha kwa malamulo pakusintha hemp sikunawonekere mu 21 CFR § 1308.11, kuchotsedwa sikunakhale kogwira ntchito. Kutsutsa kumeneku sikokwanira.

Ndizosangalatsa kuti malamulo a lipenga. Onani Nat '/ Family Planning & Reprod. Health Ass'n, Inc. v. Gonzales, 468 F.3d 826,829 (DC Cir. 2006) ("[Lamulo] lovomerezeka limakhala lopambana pamalamulo osagwirizana [.]"). Congress idakhazikitsa magawo asanu a CSA pamalamulo, kupatula kuti "magawo" a mankhidwe oyambilira azikhala ndi zinthu zomwe zalembedwa mgawoli. " 21

USC § 812 (a) .6 Congress idanenanso kuti "[]] zomwe zikukhazikitsidwa ndi gawoli zisinthidwa ndikusindikizidwanso pamiyeso yazaka ziwiri kuyambira chaka chimodzi kuyambira pa Okutobala 27, 1970, ndipo zisinthidwa nasindikizidwanso pachaka. ” 21 USC § 812 (a). Kufunika kosinthanso ndikusindikiza masanjidwewo, sikuyenera kuchita kuti magawo "akhazikitsidwe ndi [lamulo]." Id Mu zina

mawu, pomwe Congress yomwe ikukonza magawo kuti awonjezere kapena kuchotsa chinthu cholamulidwa, kuwonjezerapo kapena kuchotsa zinthu zomwe zalamulirazo zikugwira ntchito nthawi yomweyo polembetsa (kusakhalapo tsiku lina lalamulo); kuwonjezera kwake kapena kuchotsera pamadongosolo sikudalira Rulemaking.7

Mwachitsanzo, Congress idasintha CSA mchaka cha 2012 kuti chiziwonjezera "cannabimimetic agents" kuti azikonza I.

Kusintha kumeneku kunakhazikitsidwa ngati gawo la Synthetic Duse Abuse Prevention Act ya2012 (Pub.

  1. 112-144, mutu XI, subtitle D), yomwe idasainidwa mchilamulo pa Julayi 9, 2012. Pafupifupi miyezi isanu ndi umodzi pambuyo pake, a Drug Enfortage Administration ("DEA") adasindikiza lamulo lomaliza lokhala ndi manambala a mankhwalawa kwa omwe ali ndi cannabimimetic omwe amawonjezera ndandanda I ndi Congress ndikupanga masinthidwe ena ofanana kuti ndikwaniritse zomwe ndidalemba mu CFR § 21. Onani 78 Fed. Reg. 664 (Jan. 4, 2013). Pofotokoza chifukwa chake kuwongolera makalata kunali kosafunikira, DEA inanena kuti
    • “Kukhazikitsidwa kwa zinthu 26 mu Ndandanda I zayamba kale kuyambira Julayi 9, " Id pa 665 (kutsindika). Mwa kuyankhula kwina, kusintha kwa malamulo kwa tl1e ndinayamba kugwiritsa ntchito nthawi yomweyo. Kuwunikira kwa kusintha kumeneko mu 21 CFR § 1308.11, ngakhale kufunikira ndi 21 USC § 812 (a), sizinali zofunikira kuti zisinthe izi kuti zikwaniritse dongosolo I.

Chifukwa chake, kukhazikitsidwa kwa Bill Farm wa 2018 kwakwaniritsa kuchotsedwa kwa hemp (ndi THC mkati

hemp8 kuchokera ku CSA. Kusintha zosintha ku 21 CFR § 1308.11, pomwe zikufunikira monga pm

"Marihuana" ndi "Tetrahydrocannabinols" onse anaphatikizidwa mu ndandanda yoyamba yomwe ndinakhazikitsidwa ndi Congress mu 6.

7 CJ United States v. Huerta, 547 F.2d 545, 547 (10th Cir. 1977) ("[F] kudalitsa kufalitsa masinthidwe 'asinthidwa' monga amafunikira ndi Gawo 812 (a) sizinachite chilichonse pazovomerezeka zisanu zomwe zidalembedwa magawo asanu.”); United States v. Monroe, 408 F. Wothandizira. 270,274 (ND Kal. 1976) (“Chifukwa chake, pamene gawo 812 (a) limalamulira magawo olamulidwa kuti athe kusindikizidwanso, it zikuwonekeratu kuti Congress sinali ndi cholinga chobwereranso m'malo kukonzanso ndandanda, zomwe zikachitika molakwika zingapangitse kuti dongosolo lithe ndikutha ……………………………………………………………………… .. [T] iye

zofunika kuti magawo, atasinthidwa, 'kusindikizidwanso' anali chabe cholinga chokhazikitsa mndandanda umodzi womwe ungawonetse zinthu zonse zomwe zinali zogwirizana ndi malamulo a Act ……………………………………… …………………………………………… .. ..)).

8 Ndandanda ya I, monga momwe yasindikizidwa mu 21 CFR § 1308.11, imaphatikizapo tanthauzo la "tetrahydrocannabinols" m'ndime (d) (3I) yomwe simapezeka mu CSA. Mosasamala za kupezeka kwa chisokonezocho m'ma malamulo a cw · ren, ine

zaDEDE zomwe zikupitilira kufalitsa masinthidwe asinthidwa, sikofunikira kuti pakhale kusintha kwa maofesi a zaulimi ku 2018 kuti akwaniritse I.9 ·

B. Pambuyo pa Unduna wa Zaulimi Ukufalitsa Malamulo Okwaniritsa Malangizo a Hemp Production a Famu Yachaka cha 2018 Yokhala ndi Subtitle G ya Agricultural Marketing Act ya 1946, States ndi Indian Tribe Sangalepheretse Kuyendetsa kapena Kutumiza kwa Hemp Lawfnlly Kupangidwa Pansi pa Boma kapena Fuko. Konzekerani kapena Pansi Laisensi Yoperekedwa Pansipa ya Dipatimenti.

AMA § 297D (a) (l) (A) imauza Secretary kuti apereke malamulo ndi malangizo "mwachangu momwe angathere" kukhazikitsa gawo laling'ono la GA AMA. 7 USC § 1639r (a) (l) (A) .. Malamulowa athetsa kuvomerezedwa kwa mapulani a State and Tribal pansi pa AMA § 297B komanso kuperekedwa kwa ziphaso pansi pa dongosolo la Dipatimenti pansi pa AMA § 297C. Monga tafotokozera pansipa, malamulowa akangotulutsidwa, mafuko a America ndi India sangathe kuletsa mayendedwe kapena kutumizidwa kwa hemp (kuphatikiza zinthu za hemp) zopangidwa molingana ndi mapulani ovomerezeka a State kapena Tribal kapena opangidwa pansi pa layisensi yoperekedwa pansi pa dongosolo la Dipatimenti.

Kutumiza kwa hemp kumayendetsedwa mu 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114.10 Gawo lapa (a) limapereka:

  • RULE OF -Zosavomerezeka pamutuwu kapena kusintha komwe kwachitika ndi mutuwu kumaletsa malonda azaka za hemp (monga akufotokozedwera m'ndime 297A ya Agricultural Marketing Act ya 1946 (monga yawonjezeredwa ndi gawo 10113) kapena zinthu za hemp.

7 USC § 16390 makalata. Izi zikusonyeza kuti palibe chilichonse mumutu X wa Bill Fann wa 2018

ndili ndi lingaliro kuti THC mu hemp sikuphatikizidwa ku THC monga ndandanda yomwe ndimayiona pansi pa CSA chifukwa cha kusintha kwa maulimi a 2018 Farm.

9 Ndandanda I, monga momwe 21 CFR § 1308.11 ikuphatikiza, ndizophatikizanso mndandanda wazomwe zimatulutsidwa ngati "marihuana" mundime

(d) (58). Kuchuluka kwa Marijuana sikumawonetsedwa mu ndandanda I mumalamulo chifukwa idawonjezedwa pambuyo! 970 mwa malamulo pansi pa CSA § 201. Liwu loti "kuchotsedwa kwa marihuana" limawonetsedwa ngati "kuchotsedwako komwe kali ndi chimodzi kapena zingapo cannabinoids omwe amachokera ku chomera chilichonse chamtundu wa Cannabis, china chosiyana ndi utomoni wodzilekanitsa (kaya zopanda pake kapena zoyipa) zopezeka pamtengowu. ” Boma la Famu ya chaka cha 2018 lidasintha tanthauzo la "marihuana" kupatula hemp, koma chifukwa tanthauzo latsatanetsatane la "marihuana kuchotsa" mu dongosolo sindikugwiritsa ntchito mawu oti "marihuana" kapena "teb · ahydrocannabinols" pofotokoza tenesi, funso likubwera ngati hemp yotulutsa idakalipo? amatchulidwa kuti azilembedwa ngati ndandanda yomwe ndimayang'anira zinthu. Pomwe vuto silikupitilizidwanso mu malingaliro awa, Ndikuganiza kuti kutanthauzira kwatsopano kwa "marihuana" kwachotsa bwino dongosolo lake, ndikuwonetsera izi mu 21 CFR § 1308.1I (d) (58) ndikungokhala kusintha kosintha. ·

10 Kuyendera kwa Hemp kumayankhulidwanso pazochita za pachaka, zomwe zimabweza ndalama zothandizidwa ndi Federal Kugwiritsidwa ntchito poletsa transpmtation ya hemp. Komabe, zoperekazi ndizochepa pamlingo chifukwa konzani hemp yokha yopangidwa pansi paulamuliro wa Fann Bill wa 2014, ndipo amangolankhula Federal zochita za boma. Izi zikutanthauza kuti, pomwe zinthuzo zimaletsa osewera a Federal kuti aletse kayendedwe kazomwe zimadziwika kuti "Famu Yaulimi ya 2014 hemp, "saletsa boma in pankhaniyi. Onani Agriculture, Rural Developmerit, Chakudya ndi Mankhwala Administrative, and Related Agency Appurityations Act, 2019, Pub. L. 116-6, div. B, § 728 (oletsa ndalama zopezeka ndi Lamuloli kapena lamulo lina lililonse kuti ligwiritsidwe ntchito pophwanya 2014 Farm Bill Farm 7606 kapena "ku Kuletsat ndi transportation1 processing, zogulitsa, or use of makampanil hemp, or mbewus of such Chomera, kuti is wachikulire or wobzalidwa molingana ndi [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606], mkati kapena kunja kwa Boma komwe ali hemp yamagulu Walimidwa kapena kubzalidwa ”). Onaninso Ntchito Zamalonda, Zachilungamo, Sayansi, ndi Zogwirizana Zazovomerezeka, 2019, Pub.

  1. 116-6, div. C, § 536 ("Palibe ndalama zomwe zikupezeka ndi lamulo ili zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito motsutsana ndi [2014 Farm Bill§ 7606] ndi department of Justice kapena Drug Enforuction Administration."

Imaletsa kuphatikiza kwapakati pa hemp. Komabe, izi, zoyimira payekha, zilibe vuto loletsa kayendedwe ka hemp ku States kapena malo a Tribal komwe mayendedwe otero ali oletsedwa pansi pa malamulo a State kapena Tribal.

Gawo lapa (b), komabe, limaletsa mwachindunji maiko aku America ndi India kuti aletse kayendedwe ka hemp kudutsa Boma kapena Tribal ten'itory. Gawo laling'ono (b) limapereka

  • KUKONZEDWA KWA HEMP NDI HEMP - Palibe boma kapena India Chuma choletsa transp011ation kapena kutumiza kwa hemp kapena hemp prodLttures yopangidwa in malinga ndi mawu apansi G a Ntchito Zogulitsa Zaulimi mu 1946 (monga zidawonjezeredwa ndi gawo 10113) kudzera ku Boma kapena malingaliro khumi a Indian Tribe, monga zikugwirira ntchito.

7 USC § 16390 makalata. M'malo mwake, izi zimalimbikitsa malamulo aboma malinga ndi malamulo aboma

imaletsa transpate transp011ation kapena kutumiza kwa hemp yomwe yapangidwa molingana ndi gawo laling'ono la G la AMA.

Pankhani yazamalamulo oyendetsedwa ndi boma, "[iye] ali ndi udindo waukulu kuti malamulo adziko 'ndiye Lamulo Lalikulu Kwambiri; ndipo oweruza mdziko lililonse adzamangidwa motero, chilichonse mu Constitution kapena malamulo amtundu uliwonse [S] angatsate zomwe sizikutsutsana nawo…. ' Pachifukwa ichi, Congress ili ndi mphamvu yopewetsa malamulo [a S]. ” Arizona v. United States, 567

US 387, 398-99 (2012) (atchulanso zojambula za US.. VI, cl. 2). "Potsatira chiphunzitso cha kukhudzidwa ndi boma, lamulo lachifumu limachotsa kapena kulowa lamulo losagwirizana [S]." United States v. Zadeh, 820 FJd 746, 751 (5 Cir. 2016).

Makhothi aboma nthawi zambiri amavomereza mitundu itatu ya zakukhululukidwa: (1) kufotokoza kukhululuka (pomwe Congress "imachotsa] maulamuliro ku Boma kudzera mwa" kukhululuka kovomerezeka "); 11 (2) kukhululukiridwa kumayiko (komwe Maiko" saloledwa kulamula. Khalidwe m'magawo omwe Congress, ikuchita mogwirizana ndi ulamuliro wawo, watsimikiza kuyendetsedwa ndi boma lokhalo ”);12 ndi kukhululukirana pamikangano (pomwe malamulo a Boma samaloledwa akasemphana ndi malamulo a Federal, omwe akuphatikizira zochitika "momwe 'kutsatira malamulo amgwirizano ndi [S] malamulo amtunduwu ndikosatheka'” kapena zochitika "momwe lamulo latsutsidwa ' chikuyimilira ngati cholepheretsa kukwaniritsa komanso kukwaniritsa zolinga zonse za Congress ”').13 Arizona, 567 US ku 399-400 (mawu osiyidwa); onaninso Zadeh, 820 F.3d pa 751.

11 Onani, Mwachitsanzo, 7 USC § 1639i (b) (“(b) Kukhudzidwa kwa boma. - Palibe boma kapena kugawa boma pandale khazikitseni mwachindunji kapena mwanjira inayake pansi paulamuliro uliwonse kapena pitilizani kuchita kanthu monga chakudya kapena mbewu iliyonse mkati mwamalonda zilizonse zokhudzana ndi kulembedwa ngati chakudya (kuphatikiza chakudya chomwe chaperekedwa mu lesitilanti kapena malo ena ofananirako) kapena njere zosinthidwa mwanjira (zomwe ziziphatikizanso mawu ena ofanana ndi Secretary of Agriculture) kapena adapangidwa kapena kupanga pogwiritsa ntchito genetic engineering, kuphatikiza pa chilichonse chofunikira kuti chakudya kapena mbewu ikhale kapena chopangidwa chomwe chinapangidwa kapena kupangidwa pogwiritsa ntchito ujini. ”).

12 Onani, mwachitsanzo, Pac. Mafuta & Elec. Co v. State Energy Res. Kusamalira & Dev. Comm 'n, 461 US 190,212 ("[T) boma la federal lakhala mdziko lonse lapansi lokhudzana ndi chitetezo cha nyukiliya, kupatula mphamvu zochepa zomwe zimapereka zigwirizano ndi [S].").

  • n Onani, mwachitsanzo, 21 USC 903 ("Palibe lingaliro la subchapter ili lomwe liziwonetsedwa ngati lingaliro la Congress kuti likhala gawo lomwe lingagwiritsidwe ntchito, kuphatikiza zilango zaupandu, kupatula lamulo lililonse la Boma pa mutu womwewo womwe ungapange apo ayi khalani mkati mwa ulamuliro wa Boma, pokhapokha ngati pali

Gawo 10114 (b) la 2018 Fann Bill likukwaniritsa tanthauzo lothana ndi nkhondo chifukwa lamulo la boma loletsa kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa zinthu za hemp kapena hemp zomwe zapangidwa molingana ndi gawo laling'ono la G la AMA lingasemphane ndi Gawo 10114 (b), lomwe likupereka kuti palibe Boma lomwe lingaletse kugwira ntchito zotere.14 Chifukwa chake, malamulo aboma aliwonse akhazikitsidwa ndi Congress. Zotsatira zomwezi zikugwiranso ntchito ku mafuko aku India.15

Zambiri, malamulo akakhazikitsidwa atasindikizidwa, mafuko a America ndi India sangathe kuletsa kutumizidwa kwa boma kwa boma motsogozedwa ndi pulani ya State kapena Tribal kapena pansi pa layisensi yoperekedwa ndi dongosolo la Dipatimenti.

C. Ma Stlites ndi Indian Tribe Sangakulepheretseni Kusamukira kapena Kutumiza kwa Hemp Mwalamulo Komwe Kukulembedwa Pansi pa Zolima Zachaka cha 2014.

Chifukwa cha 2018 Fmm Bill satulutsa mwachangu ulamulilo wa woyendetsa ndege wa hemp mu 2014 Farm Bill § 7606 - komanso chifukwa kufalitsa kwa malamulo omwe akukwaniritsa zomwe akupanga pa hemp ya 2018 Fann Bill mwina sikudzachitika mpaka mtsogolo mu 2019 -funso likubwera ngati mayiko. ndipo mafuko aku India saloledwa kuletsa kuyenda kapena kutumiza kwa hemp (kuphatikiza zinthu za hemp) zopangidwa movomerezeka mu lamulo la 2014 Fmm. Yankho limatengera tanthauzo la mawu oti "malinga ndi gawo laling'ono la G la Agricultural MarketingActof1946 ″ mu2018FmmBill § 10114 (b) (7U.SC § 1639onote). Hemp yokha yopangidwa molingana ndi gawo laling'ono G limavomerezeka ndi kupulumutsidwa komwe takambirana pamwambapa. Monga tafotokozera pansipa, ndi lingaliro langa kuti yankho la funso ili ndi inde, pogwira ntchito AMA § 297B (f).

AMA§ 297B (f) ikufotokoza zakuwongolera kwazomwe zaloleza mayiko ndi mayiko a India kuti apange mapulani ogwiritsira ntchito ulamuliro wanthawi zonse pakupanga hemp mkati mwa Boma kapena gawo la fuko la India. Makamaka, gawo 297B (f) limapereka:

(f) ETSHO.Palibe gawo ili lomwe likuletsa kupangidwa kwa hemp ku Boma kapena malo a fuko la India-

(!) yomwe mapulani a State kapena Tribal silivomerezedwa pansi pa gawo ili, ngati kupanga hemp kuli motsatira gawo 297C kapena malamulo ena a Federal (kuphatikiza malamulo); ndi

(2) ngati kupanga hemp sikuletsedwa mwanjira ina ndi Boma kapena India.

kulimbana pakati pa kuperekedwa kwa kachidutswaka ndi lamulo la Boma kotero kuti awiriwo sangathe kuyimilira palimodzi. ").

Mwanjira ina, gawo 14 (b) lingaonedwe ngati mwayi wopemphedwa chifukwa lamulo limapereka mphamvu za State State yoletsa kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa zinthu za hemp kapena hemp kudzera mu Boma.

15 AMA§ 297B (a) (3) imakhala ndi mfundo yoletsa kukhululukidwa ikunena kuti palibe chilichonse mu 297B (a) "chopewera kapena kukhazikitsa lamulo lililonse la fuko kapena la India" lomwe Loletsa kupanga kwa hemp "ndipo" ndilolimba kuposa [subtitle G] .11 TU.SC § J639p (a) (3). Komabe, chisankho chotsutsana ndi chikhululukirocho sichokwanira pa Kupanga wa hemp - osati mayendedwe kapena kutumizidwa kwa hemp- ndipo chifukwa chake sikutsutsana ndi 2018 Farm Bill§ IOI14 (b).

7 USC § 1639p (f) (kutsindika).

Izi zikuthandizira kupangidwa kwa hemp mdera kapena boma lomwe boma kapena mtundu wawo sunakhale ndi pulani yololedwa ndi AMA § 297B. Izi zavomereza kuti, pazochitika zotere, kupanga kwa hemp mu Boma kapena Teititory ya Tribal kumakhalabe kosavomerezeka ngati atapangidwa mwina malinga ndi dongosolo la Dipatimenti pansi pa AMA § 297C or malinga ndi malamulo ena a Federal, ndipo Boma kapena fuko sililetsa mwanjira ina kupanga kwake.

Chilankhulo chomveka chaputala G cha AMA, monga chowonjezeredwa ndi Bill Farm cha 2018, chikuwunikira momveka bwino mawonekedwe omwe hemp yake silipangidwa pansi pa pulani ya 297B kapena kusungidwa ndi layisensi yoperekedwa pansi pa pulani ya 297C ya dipatimenti, komabe zopangidwa movomerezeka pansi

"Malamulo ena a Federal." Ndili lingaliro langa kuti "malamulo ena a Federal" amaphatikiza chaka ndi chaka cha 2014

  • 7606.16

Pazidziwitso zanga, asanalembedwe kwa2014 Farm Bill Farm 7606, CSA inali yokhayo Federal Federal yomwe idaloleza kupanga hemp. Zowonadi, kupanga hemp- ngati "kupanga" ndandanda yomwe ndimayang'anira - inali yoletsedwa pansi pa CSA kupatula momwe idavomerezedwera ndikulembetsa kapena kutsitsa pansi pa CSA. Onani 21 USC

  • § 802 (15), 802 (22), 822, ndi 823; 21 CFR paJt 1301. Popeza (1) kuchotsedwa kwa hemp ngati chinthu cholamulidwa motsogozedwa ndi CSA, (2) kuchotsedwa kochedwa kwa ulamuliro wa 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606, ndi (3) kukhazikitsidwa kwa olamulira atsopano opanga ma hemp polemba G ya AMA, ndi lingaliro langa kuti "malamulo ena a Federal" akunena za zomwe mungachite mu 2014 Farm Bill
  • 7606, zomwe zikuchitikabe. Kutanthauzira kotereku kumapereka tanthauzo la mawu akuti "malamulo ena achikhalidwe." Ndi "tanthauzo lalikulu lamasulidwe lomwe couJts ayenera kupereka .katheka, ngati nkotheka, ku gawo lililonse ndi liwu lililonse la lamulo." Onani, mwachitsanzo, Loughrin v. United States, 573 US 351, 358 (2014) (zolemba zamkati ndi mawu osiyidwa) asiyidwa. ·

Chifukwa chake, kuwerenga AMA§ 297B (f) mogwirizana ndi 2018 Faim Bill§ 10114 (b), ngati hemp yapangidwa mwalamulo molingana ndi 2014 Farm Bill§ 7606 ("malamulo ena a Federal"), ndiye, ndi viJtue of AMA § 297B (f), kupanga kwake sikuletsedwa. Hmp imeneyi ikadakhala yopangidwa “molingana ndi gawo laling'ono la G,” lomwe limangotchula za scenaifo, monga AMA

  • 297B (f) ndi gawo la mawu ang'onoang'ono G. Chifukwa chake, pansi pa 2018 Farm Bill§ 10114 (b), Boma kapena India

16 Kuti Congress yomwe idawonera zoterezi zikuwoneka kuti idapatsidwa chilankhulo mu 2018 Fann Bill§ 7605 (b} ikuchedwetsa kubwezeretsedwa kwa2014 Farm Bill Farm 7606 mpaka miyezi 12 pambuyo Mlembi akhazikitsa dongosolo la 297C. Chifukwa chake, kuwerengera kumeneku sikuletsedwa ndi AMA§ 1C (c) (l), komwe kumapereka: "[i] nambala yafuko la State kapena India lomwe lingaliro la boma kapena la Tribal sililivomerezedwa pansi pa gawo 297B, liyenera musakhale ovomerezeka kutulutsa hemp mu Boma kapena malingaliro khumi a fuko la India popanda chilolezo choperekedwa ndi Secretary under sub (b). " Popeza kutchulidwa kwa "kapena malamulo ena a Federal" mu AMA § 297B (f) (l) - ndi chakuti 297 Farm Bill§ 2014 ikugwirabe ntchito

- kukakhala kuwerenga kopanda nzeru kwa AMA §297C (c) (J) kuti aHEmp adatulutsa molingana ndi malamulo a Federal (2014 Fann Bill § 7606) ndi, nthawi yomweyo, yosavomerezeka popanda chilolezo chokha choperekedwa ndi Secretary. pansi pa pulani ya 297C. Monga ma com1s adazindikira kalekale, zilembedwe zamalamulo zomwe "zimapanga zotsatira zopanda nzeru ziyenera kukhala pewetsani kutanthauzira kosagwirizana ndi mfundo zamalamulo. ” Griffin v. Oc_eanic Makontrakitala, Inc., 458 US 564,575 (1982).

Fuko silingaletse kutumiza kapena kutumiza anthu otchedwa "Famu Yaulimi ya 01 'kudzera m'Dera kapena la Fuko.17

Zochitika Zaposachedwa

Ndikuvomereza kuti mfundo iyi ikugwirizana ndi lingaliro laposachedwa pamavuto mu District ya Idaho, komanso likugwirizana ndi lingaliro laposachedwa pamavuto ku Southern District West West. Palibe khothi lomwe lidayankhula "malamulo ena a Federal" mu AMA § 297B (f) (l), yomwe ndimapeza kuti ndi yotsimikizika.

In Big Sky Science Science LLC v. Jdaho State Police, Mlanduwu Nambala 19-CV-00040 (D. Idaho), woweruza wamkulu wamilandu anapeza kuti kutumizidwa kwa OregoI1 hemp kupita ku Colorado ndikuyimitsidwa ndi apolisi a m'boma la Idaho sikukadapanga "malinga ndi mawu apansi G" chifukwa boma ochokera komwe sanakhalepo ndi pulani yovomerezeka rn1der AMA § 297B ndipo Secretary sanakhazikitse dongosolo pansi pa AMA § 297C.18 Matigari adavomereza lamulo la Oregon lololeza kulima hemp, ndikuti amaneneza kuti hemp idapangidwa ndi wopatsa chilolezo ndi Oregon department of Agriculture (ndipo, motero, mwakuyenera kutsatira 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 zofunika).19 Komabe, pakukaniza kuti apolisi ayambe kulamula, oyimira boma ataganiza kuti, pakuyambitsa lamulo laulimi wa 2018, Congress idaganiza "kupanga malamulo oyendetsera kapangidwe kazinthu ndikusintha kwa hemp chifukwa cha malamulo a boma. izikhala mu dongosolo la federal (kapena logwirizana [la S] kapena [T]] la kupanga hemp lomwe limapezeka mu 2018 Fmm Bill. ”20 Ngakhale Boma la Zaulimi la 2018 limalola kuti ma hemp adutsedwe kudutsa mizera ya boma, abwanamkubwa woweruza amawotcha11 akukhazikitsa zikhalidwe zokhazo zomwe zimalamulidwa ndi lamulo la 2018 Farm Bill.21 Chifukwa chake, chifukwa malamulowa sanapezekepo, hempho yotsimikiziridwayo ikulamulidwa ndi lamulo la Idaho loletsa kufalikira kwake.

USDA siamadzulo mu Thambo Lalikulu mlandu, ndipo ofesi iyi siyigwirizana ndi zomwe abwanamkubwa amafotokoza zokhudza kutumiza kwa hemp zovomerezeka mwalamulo la 2014 Farm Bill. Mu

17 Izi zikuwoneka ngati zikugwirizana ndi mbiri yakale. Pofotokoza momwe ntchito yakuperekera ufulu wakupereka, Report Report imati: “Ngakhale [ma S] amitundu ndi mafuko aku India akhoza kuchepetsa kupanga ndi kugulitsa zinthu za hemp ndi hemp mkati mwa malire awo, a Manenjala, ku Sec. 10112 [sic], anavomera kuti asalole [ma S] ndi mafuko aku India kuti achepetse kayendedwe kapena kutumiza kwa zinthu za hemp kapena hemp kudutsa [S] tate kapena India01y. ” HR REP. No. 115-1072, pa 738 (2018). Makamaka, Oyang'anira amatanthauza hemp nthawi zambiri, osati hemp yomwe imapangidwa pansi pa pulani yomwe idapangidwa pansi pamawu G a AMA.

18 Onani Big Sky, ECF Doc. # 32, Chisankho cha Memorandum ndi Order Re: Plaintiffs Motion for Preliminary Injement; onaninso ECF Doc. # 6, Chisankho cha Memorandum ndi Order Re: Plaintiffs Emergency Motion for temporary temporary Reraining Order and Preliminary lltjement and Plaintiffs Motion to File Overlength Brunch (akupezeka pa 2019 WL 438336 (Feb 2, 2019).

19 Thambo Lalikulu, ECF Doc. # 32, pa 5, 7-8.

20 Id ku 3.

21 Id pa 19-26.

Pomaliza kuyimitsa chilankhulocho, kazitapeyo anazindikira moyenera mfundo yokhazikitsidwa mwalamulo yomwe malamulo sayenera kutanthauziridwa “m'njira yomwe ingaperekenso malamulo ena omwe sakukwanira, opanda tanthauzo, kapena osasangalatsa.” 1 Komabe, zikuwoneka kuti zikunyalanyaza izi. potsogoza tanthauzo, mkuluyu sanatanthauzira momwe zilankhulo zina “zamalamulo a Federa” mu AMA § 22B (f) kapena kuyesera kuti zimveke tanthauzo la chilankhulochi. Khothi la Idaho linalephera kuwerenga lamuloli ponseponse ndipo silinalingalire za "malamulo ena a Federal" omwe ndimapeza kuti ali ndi tanthauzo. Poganizira momwe chigamulo cha maenechi sichilamulira, ndikupeza kuti malingaliro ake akukana kutsatira koyambirira.297

Mosiyana, kutanthauzira kwa 2018 Farm Bill § 10114 yoyendetsedwa ndi lingaliro lamalamulo lino kumagwirizana ndi lingaliro lomwe linaperekedwa ku Southern District of West Virginia. Mu United States v. Mallory, Mlanduwu N. 18-CV-1289 (SDW Va.), \ Oepmtment of Justice idapereka chigamulo chaku boma kuti alande hemp yemwe akuwoneka kuti wakula motsutsana ndi CSA komanso kunja kwa chiwonetsero cha 2014 Fann Bill. Pazochitika izi anali mkulu wa opanga ovomerezeka ndi State of West Virginia mchaka cha 2014 Fmm Bill§ 7606, pomwe mbewu za hemp zidatumizidwa kuchokera ku Kentucky woperekera chilolezo ndi Commonwealth of Kentucky pansi pa Bill Farm wa 2014

  • Pulogalamu ya oyendetsa 7606. Khothi lidadalira kuphatikiza malamulo - Lamulo la Zaulimi la 2014, zovomerezeka zimapereka, 24 ndi Bill Farm wa 2018 - kuthetseratu chilamulo chotsutsana ndi wozengedwayo25 ndikuchotsa mlandu wonse waboma.26 Pakukakamiza lamulo loyambirira la milandu , khothi lidapempha omwe akuwayimbira milandu kuti atenge katundu wa hemp kupita ku Pennsylvania kupita ku Pennsylvania kukakonza ndikugulitsa.1

Ngakhale Mallory Khothi silinapezeke kanthu pothana ndi boma kuti likulepheretse kayendedwe ka hemp, khotilo lanena za 2018 Fmm Bill § 10114, ponena kuti "imalola kuti hemp, mbewu zake, ndi hemp, zotengera zinthu ziyende kudutsa mizere ya State. "28 Woweruza wachigawo adaganizira hemp yomwe idatulutsidwa mu 2014 Fann Bill§ 7606 osati malingaliro apamwamba omwe amakhala pansi pa boma, Tribal, kapena Depmtmental. Mapeto ake ndi Alireza Khothi likugwirizana ndi malingaliro anga onse omwe States singatseke kutumiza kwa hemp, kaya

22 Id pa 21-22 (osonyeza Padash v. I.NS., 258 F.3d ll61, 1170-71 (9th Cir. 2004)). Matigari anapitiliza:

Ndi lamulo lakhazikitsidwe kamakonzedwe kazinthu kamomwe malamulo amayenera, pazonse, kukhala chomwecho zimamveka kuti, ngati it zitha kupewedwa, palibe mawu, chiganizo, kapena mawu omwe adzakhala opanda pake, opanda, kapena zopanda pake. ... Ndi udindo wathu kupereka, ngati nkotheka, ku gawo lililonse ndi mawu a boma.

Id pa 23 (zowerenga zamkati ndi mawu osiyidwa).

23 Zowonadi, kubwalo lamatsenga kudandaula. Mwaona Big Sky Sci. LLC v. Bennetts, Mlanduwu Na. 19-35138 (9 Cir.).

24 Onani supra mawu am'munsi 10.

25 Mal / olJ ', ECF Doc. # 60, Maumboni a Memorandum and Order, 2019 WL 252530 (SDW Va. Jan. 17, 2019).

26 Mal / wanga, BCF Doc. # 72, Maumboni a Memorandum and Order, 2019 WL 1061677 (SDW Va. Mar. 6, 2019).

27 Mal / o, y, BCF Doc. # 60, 2019 WL 252530, ku * 3.

28 Malo, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL 1061677, ku * 6:

Page 12

kuti hemp imapangidwa pansi pa 2014 Faim Bill kapena pansi pa State, Tribal, kapena departmental plan w1der the 2018 Farm Bill. Ndiwonso chigamulo chomaliza cha Southern District West West ng'ombe, osati chigamulo choyambirira ngati malingaliro a kazembe wa District ofldaho.29

Pankhani ya kutanthauzira mwalamulo, zomwe zalembedwako zikuwongolera. Wowerengera mawuwo mokwanira ndi kupereka tanthauzo lenileni la liwu. Kutchulidwa kwa "malamulo ena a Federa" kuyenera kupatsidwa tanthauzo, ndipo chilankhulochi chikutanthauza lamulo la Federal lomwe pakali pano limavomereza kupanga hemp - 1 Fann Bill § 2014. Chifukwa chake, hemp yomwe idapangidwa pansi paulamuliro wa woyendetsa ndege ndi hemp wopangidwa molingana ndi mawu omasulira G a AMA. Mayiko ndi amitundu aku India sangathe kuletsa kutulutsidwa kapena kutumizidwa kwa malo amtunduwu kudzera mu boma kapena mayiko. ·

D. Zoletsa za Malo Akulimidwa kwa Famu ya 2018 pa Kupanga kwa Hemp kochokera kwa A Felons Ena.

Pulogalamu Yachaka Chaulimi ya 2018 idawonjezeranso njira ina yothana ndi luso la opezeka olakwa kuti apange hemp. Boma la Faim la 2014 silinenapo kanthu pa nkhaniyi. AMA§ 297B (e) (3) (B) (pambuyo pake, "Felony amalungiselelo"), monga momwe yawonjezeredwa ndi Bill Farm wa 2018, akupereka:

(B) FELONY.—

  • MU CHENJEZO-Pokhapokha monga momwe zalembedwera (ii), munthu aliyense yemwe ali ndi mlandu wokhudza a katundu wolamulidwa ndi State kapena Federal Law · isanachitike, ku, kapena pambuyo tsiku lokhazikitsidwa kwa izi mawu ang'onoang'ono sichidzakhala chobisika, nthawi ya zaka I0 kuyambira tsiku lokhudzidwa

(!) kutenga nawo mbali mu pulogalamu yomwe idakhazikitsidwa pansi pa gawo ili kapena gawo 297C; ndi

(II) kupanga hemp pansi pa malamulo kapena malangizo aliwonse omwe aperekedwa pansi pa gawo 297D (a).

  • -Chisankho (i) sichigwira ntchito kwa munthu aliyense amene ali ndi chilolezo chovomerezeka mwalamulo; kulembetsa, + kapena chilolezo pansi pa pulogalamu yoyendetsa ndege yovomerezedwa ndi gawo 7606 la Agriculture Act of2014 (7 USC 5940) kale tsiku loti akhazikitse izi.

7 USC § l 639p (e) (3) (B) (motsindika). Zomwe zatchulidwazi "tsiku la kukhazikitsidwa kwa nkhaniyi 'ndikulemba G G ya AMA, monga momwe gawo 10113 la2018 Fann Bill lasonyezera. Chifukwa chake, "tsiku lokhazikitsidwa kwa gawo laling'ono ili" ndi tsiku loti kukhazikitsidwe kwa 2018 Farm Bill pa Disembala 20, 2018.

Pofotokozera za Felony, the Report Report ikuti:

Aliyense amene wakupezeka ndi mlandu wokhudzana ndi chinthu cholamulidwa sangakhale ndi mwayi wogwira nawo ntchito [S] kapena [T] nthito ya nthawi yayitali JO ikatha tsiku lomangidwa. Komabe, izi sizingagwire ntchito kwa opanga omwe akhala akulolera mwalamulo pulogalamu ya S [t] tate hemp monga idalolezedwa ndi Agricultural Act ya 2014, asanavomereze izi. Zikhulupiriro zotsatila pambuyo poti lamulo lakhazikitsidwa izi zidzapangitsa kuti ndili ndi zaka 0

29 Malo, BCF Doc. # 72, 2019 WL l 06 I677, pa * 9 (kukana zoyendera za United States kuti zisinthe ndikupereka chilolezo cha omwe akutsutsa kuti athetse). Thambo Lalikulu, BCF Doc. # 32, pa 28 (kukana zoyimbira kuti zikhale gawo la preliminaiy ndikumawona kuti comt ipereka padera kukhazikitsa msonkhano wokonzekera mlandu kuti upite patsogolo).

Page 13

nthawi yosachita nawo chidwi kaya opanga nawo nawo nawo adavomerezedwa mu 2014.

HR REP. Ayi. 115-1072, pa 737 (2018).

Zambiri, munthu yemwe wapezeka ndi mlandu wokhudza boma kapena Federal felony wokhudzana ndi chinthu cholamulidwa - mosasamala kanthu kuti chitsimikizocho chinachitika liti - sangathe kutulutsa hemp mothandizidwa ndi G wa AMA kwa nthawi ya zaka i0 pambuyo pa tsiku lomangidwa. Kupatula komwe kumakhalapo m'ndime ya (ii) ya Felony yomwe imagwira ntchito kwa munthu yemwe anali kupanga mwalamulo mchilamulo chaulimi cha 2014 kale Disembala 20, 2018, ndi yemwe adaweruzidwa ndi chifaniziro cha zinthu zoyendetsedwa tsiku lisanafike. Maiko a America ndi India tsopano ali ndi mwayi wololera kuti munthu akhale ndi chidwi chofuna kudya ngati munthu akufuna kudya kapena dera la Tribal lili ndi chikhulupiliro cha Federal kapena State felony chokhudzana ndi zinthu zomwe zalamulidwa zomwe zingamupangitse munthuyu kuti asatulutse hemp.

  • NKHANI ZINA

Pali zinthu ziwiri zofunika kwambiri pankhaniyi zomwe zikufunika kutsindika.

Choyamba, Boma la Zaulimi la 2018 limasunga ulamulilo wa States ndi mafuko aku India kuti akhazikitse ndikukhazikitsa malamulo okhazikitsa kupanga kwa hemp omwe amakhala olimba kwambiri kuposa malamulo a Federal. Onani AMA

  • 297B (a) (3) (7 USC § 1639p (a) (3)) (”Palibe chilichonse m'gawo lachigawo chino chomwe chimalamula kapena kukhazikitsa lamulo lililonse la fuko kapena la India lomwe… (i) limayang'anira kupanga hemp; ndi (ii) ) Ndiwokakamira kuposa mawuwa. "). Mwachitsanzo, Boma likhoza kupitilizabe kuletsa kukula kwa ulimi wa hemp m'Boma.30 Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, pomwe boma kapena fuko la India lingaletse kupanga kwa hemp, sikungaletse kutumiza kwa hemp komwe kuli adapangidwa motsatira lamulo la Federal.

Chachiwiri, Bill Faim ya 2018 sikukhudza kapena kusintha ulamuliro wa Secretary of Health and Human Services ("HHS Secretary" ·) kapena Commissioner of Chakudya ndi Mankhwala ("FDA · · Commissioner") pansi pa Federal Food, Drug, ndi Cosmetic Act (21 USC § 301 et seq.) Ndi gawo 351 la Public Health Service Act (42 USC § 262). Onani AMA§ 297D (c) (7 USC

  • 1639r (c)). Ngakhale AMA§ 297D (b) imapereka kuti Secretary of Agriculture adzakhala ndi "ulamuliro wokhawo" kuti atulutse malamulo ndi chitsogozo chokhudzana ndi kupanga kwa hemp; ulamulirowu umagwirizana ndi ulamuliro wa HHS Secretary and FDA Commissioner kuti akhazikitse malamulo ndi malangizo aboma pansi pa malamulo a FDA. 7 USC § 1639r (b).

3 ° Maiko ena akupitirizabe kuletsa kulima kwa hemp. Onani Misonkhano Ya National Assembly of State, "State Indu kesi Hemp Statement," ilipo http:// www.11cs l. kapena /ofufuza h/ agriculnthawi-ndi-nthawil- Kukula / boma-· indus trial-hemp-statmakuponix # stadadya (yasinthidwa Feb. I, 2019).

  1. POMALIZA

Ndasanthula zopereka za hemp zomwe zidakhazikitsidwa ngati Patt ya 2018 Fann Bill ndikufika pamalingaliro otsatirawa:

  1. Ponena za kukhazikitsidwa kwa 2018 Fatm Bill pa Disembala 20, 2018, hemp yachotsedwa mu dongosolo I la CSA ndipo salinso kuwongolera
  2. USDA itasindikiza malamulo oyendetsera zopanga za hemp za 2018 Fatm Bill zomwe zili mu gawo laling'ono G la AMA, States ndi mafuko aku India sangathe kuletsa tl1e interstate transp01tation kapena kutumiza kwa hemp mwalamulo kutulutsa lamulo la State kapena Tribal 'kapena pansi pa layisensi yotulutsidwa athandizidwe i;
  3. Maiko aku America ndi India sangatiletse kulowa pakati kapena kutumiza kwa hemp movomerezeka mwalamulo ku 2014 Famu
  4. Munthu wokhala ndi boma kapena Federal felony yokhudzana ndi chinthu cholamulidwa amaloledwa kuletsa zaka 10 kuletsa kupanga hemp molamulidwa ndi G ya AMA. Kupatula kumakhudzana ndi munthu yemwe anali movomerezeka kumakulitsa hemp pansi paulimi wa 2014 Famu pamaso pa Disembala 20, 2018, komanso yemwe chigamulo chake chidachitikanso tsikulo lisanafike.

Boma la Famu la 2018 likusunga ulamulilo wa States ndi mafuko aku India kuti akhazikitse ndikukhazikitsa malamulo omwe amayang'anira kupanga kwa hemp omwe ndi okhwimitsa malamulo a Federal. Kuphatikiza apo, ilie 2018 Farm Bill sikukhudza kapena kusintha ulamuliro wa Mlembi wa HHS kapena FDA Commissioner kuti ayang'anire hemp pansi pa malamulo a FDA.

Tikuwonani sabata yamawa ndi Nkhani zambiri za Cannabis!

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Thomas Howard

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Maloya athu amabizinesi a cannabis nawonso ndi eni mabizinesi. Titha kukuthandizani kukonza bizinesi yanu kapena kuthandiza kuteteza ku malamulo olemetsa kwambiri.

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loya wa makampani a cannabis

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loya wa makampani a cannabis

316 SW Washington St, PA Chotsatira 1A Peoria, PA
IL 61602, USA
Tiimbireni 309-740-4033 || e-Email Us tom@collateralbase.com

loya wa makampani a cannabis

150 S. Wacker Dr,
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loya wa makampani a cannabis

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Nkhani Zamakampani a Cannabis & Legalization

Nkhani Zamakampani a Cannabis & Legalization

Amalembetsa ndikupeza zatsopano pamsika wa cannabis. Zikhala maimelo pafupifupi 2 pamwezi ndi zonse!

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